Association of Pro-inflammatory Dietary Intake and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Findings from Iranian case-control study

Farhad Vahid*, Nitin Shivappa, Azita Hekmatdoost, James R. Hebert, Hossein Poustchi, Ali Shamsipour, Tannaz Eslamparast, Mohammad Meibodi, Diyako Rahmani

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is considered as a major health problem in the world. There is much evidence that diet and dietary factors play an important role in inflammation, and consequently pathogenesis of NAFLD. To investigate the role of diet in the development of inflammation, we can use the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), which has been shown to be predictive of levels of inflammatory markers. Methods: 295 incident cases were selected using the convenience-sampling procedure, and 704 controls randomly were selected from the same clinic and among the patients who had no hepatic steatosis and were frequency-matched on age (±5 years) and sex. The DII was computed based on dietary intake from 168-item FFQ. Logistic regression models were used to estimate multivariable ORs. Results: Subjects in tertile 3 had 1.57 (95% CI: 1.13-2.20), 1.78 (95% CI: 1.19-2.67), and 2.02 (95% CI: 1.32-3.09) times higher odds of developing NAFLD, compared to subjects in tertile 1 in models 1 (adjusted for age), 2 (model 1 + BMI, education, smoking, alcohol, diabetes, low density lipoprotein, triglycerides) and 3 (model 2 + aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase), respectively. When used as a continuous variable, one unit increase in DII was associated with 1.16 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.29), 1.21 (95% CI: 1.107, 1.37) and 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.43) increase in odds of NAFLD in models one, 2 and 3 respectively. Conclusion: Subjects who consumed a more pro-inflammatory diet were at increased odds of NAFLD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)144-150
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII)
  • Dietary assessment
  • Inflammation
  • Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)


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