Background: Numerous studies have revealed that diet has been considered as an important pathogenic factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ) is a method of quantitative and qualitative evaluation of single foods and diets, which has special significance in recognizing clinical nutritional problems. Materials and Methods: This study included 295 patients with NAFLD and 704 controls. The dietary intake was assessed through a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. INQ was calculated from the questionnaire data and was compared between the 2 groups. Results: The controls had higher INQ of vitamin D, vitamin E, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B12; biotin, pantothenic acid, magnesium and zinc compared to the patients with NAFLD. After controlling for several covariates, positive associations were observed between NAFLD risk and INQs of riboflavin (ORriboflavin = 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.28-0.78; ORbiotin = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.18-0.76; ORpantothenic = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.12-0.64; ORmagnesium = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.11-0.75; ORzinc = 0.15 95% CI: 0.05-0.42). Conclusions: Findings of the present study suggest that subjects who follow a more healthy and nutrient-rich diet, especially in terms of vitamins D, B1, B2, B12, B3 and zinc, are at a lower risk of NAFLD compared to those who consume unhealthy and nutrient-poor diet.
- Index of Nutritional Quality
- Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
- Nutritional assessment
- Vitamin D