Association Between Index of Nutritional Quality and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Role of Vitamin D and B Group

Farhad Vahid, Azita Hekmatdoost, Sousan Mirmajidi, Saeid Doaei, Diyako Rahmani, Zeinab Faghfoori*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Numerous studies have revealed that diet has been considered as an important pathogenic factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ) is a method of quantitative and qualitative evaluation of single foods and diets, which has special significance in recognizing clinical nutritional problems. Materials and Methods: This study included 295 patients with NAFLD and 704 controls. The dietary intake was assessed through a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. INQ was calculated from the questionnaire data and was compared between the 2 groups. Results: The controls had higher INQ of vitamin D, vitamin E, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B12; biotin, pantothenic acid, magnesium and zinc compared to the patients with NAFLD. After controlling for several covariates, positive associations were observed between NAFLD risk and INQs of riboflavin (ORriboflavin = 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.28-0.78; ORbiotin = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.18-0.76; ORpantothenic = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.12-0.64; ORmagnesium = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.11-0.75; ORzinc = 0.15 95% CI: 0.05-0.42). Conclusions: Findings of the present study suggest that subjects who follow a more healthy and nutrient-rich diet, especially in terms of vitamins D, B1, B2, B12, B3 and zinc, are at a lower risk of NAFLD compared to those who consume unhealthy and nutrient-poor diet.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)212-218
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of the Medical Sciences
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Index of Nutritional Quality
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
  • Nutritional assessment
  • Vitamin D
  • Zinc


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