Association between dietary inflammatory index (DII) and risk of prediabetes: A case-control study

Farhad Vahid, Nitin Shivappa, Mohsen Karamati, Alireza Jafari Naeini, James R. Hebert, Sayed Hossein Davoodi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

52 Citations (Scopus)


The possible relationship between diet-related inflammation and the risk of prediabetes requires further investigation, especially in non-Western populations. We examined the ability of the dietary inflammatory index (DII) to predict the risk of prediabetes in a case-control study conducted at specialized centers in Esfahan, Iran. A total of 214 incident cases of prediabetes were selected with the nonrandom sampling procedure, and the 200 controls randomly selected from the same clinics were frequency-matched on age (±5 years) and sex. DII scores were computed based on dietary intake assessed using a validated and reproducible 168-item food-frequency questionnaire. Linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate multivariable beta estimates and odds ratios (ORs). Subjects in tertile 3 versus tertile 1 (T3VS1) of DII had significantly higher fasting plasma glucose (DIIT3VS1: b = 4.49; 95% CI 1.89, 7.09), oral glucose tolerance (DIIT3VS1: b = 8.76; 95% CI 1.78, 15.73), HbA1c (DIIT3VS1: b = 0.30; 95% CI 0.17, 0.42), low-density lipoprotein (DIIT3VS1: b = 16.37; 95% CI 11.04, 21.69), triglyceride (DIIT3VS1: b = 21.01; 95% CI 8.61, 33.42) and body fat (DIIT3VS1: b = 2.41; 95% CI 0.56, 4.26) and lower high-density lipoprotein (DIIT3VS1: b = −3.39; 95% CI −5.94, −0.84) and lean body mass (DIIT3VS1: b = −3.11; 95% CI −4.83, −1.39). After multivariate adjustment, subjects in the most pro-inflammatory DII group had 19 times higher odds of developing prediabetes compared with subjects in tertile 1 (DIIT3VS1: OR= 18.88; 95% CI 7.02, 50.82). Similar results were observed when DII was used as a continuous variable, (DIIcontinuous: OR = 3.62; 95% CI 2.50, 5.22). Subjects who consumed a more pro-inflammatory diet were at increased risk of prediabetes compared with those who consumed a more anti-inflammatory diet.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)399-404
Number of pages6
JournalApplied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Diet
  • Inflammation
  • Metabolic syndrome


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