Arabidopsis LIM proteins: A family of actin bundlers with distinct expression patterns and modes of regulation

Jessica Papuga, Clément Thomas*, Céline Hoffmann, Monika Dieterle, Danièle Moes, Flora Moreau, Stéphane Tholl, André Steinmetz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

94 Citations (Scopus)


Recently, a number of two LIM-domain containing proteins (LIMs) have been reported to trigger the formation of actin bundles, a major higher-order cytoskeletal assembly. Here, we analyzed the six Arabidopsis thaliana LIM proteins. Promoter-b-glucuronidase reporter studies revealed that WLIM1, WLIM2a, and WLIM2b are widely expressed, whereas PLIM2a, PLIM2b, and PLIM2c are predominantly expressed in pollen. LIM-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions all decorated the actin cytoskeleton and increased actin bundle thickness in transgenic plants and in vitro, although with different affinities and efficiencies. Remarkably, the activities of WLIMs were calcium and pH independent, whereas those of PLIMs were inhibited by high pH and, in the case of PLIM2c, by high [Ca2+]. Domain analysis showed that the C-terminal domain is key for the responsiveness of PLIM2c to pH and calcium. Regulation of LIM by pH was further analyzed in vivo by tracking GFP-WLIM1 and GFP-PLIM2c during intracellular pH modifications. Cytoplasmic alkalinization specifically promoted release of GFP-PLIM2c but not GFP-WLIM1, from filamentous actin. Consistent with these data, GFP-PLIM2c decorated long actin bundles in the pollen tube shank, a region of relatively low pH. Together, our data support a prominent role of Arabidopsis LIM proteins in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization and dynamics in sporophytic tissues and pollen.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3034-3052
Number of pages19
JournalPlant Cell
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2010


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