CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) have demonstrated efficacy in the prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Preclinical and clinical studies indicate that Tregs are able to protect from GVHD without interfering with the graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), although the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. To elucidate Treg suppressive function during in vivo suppression of acute GVHD, we performed paired T-cell receptor (TCRα and ΤCRβ genes) repertoire sequencing and RNA sequencing analysis on conventional T cells (Tcons) and Tregs before and after transplantation in a major histocompatibility complex –mismatched mouse model of HCT. We show that both Tregs and Tcons underwent clonal restriction, and Tregs did not interfere with the activation of alloreactive Tcon clones and the breadth of their TCR repertoire but markedly suppressed their expansion. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that Tregs predominantly affected the transcriptome of CD4 Tcons and, to a lesser extent, that of CD8 Tcons, thus modulating the transcription of genes encoding pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules as well as enzymes involved in metabolic processes, inducing a switch from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation. Finally, Tregs did not interfere with the induction of gene sets involved in the GVT effect. Our results shed light onto the mechanisms of acute GVHD suppression by Tregs and will support the clinical translation of this immunoregulatory approach.