Concerning fish allergy, the major allergens are the β isoforms of muscle parvalbumins. Fish parvalbumins share among themselves important homologies in amino acid composition, which gives rise to extensive cross-sensitizations. Allergic cross-reactions with frog parvalbumin have been described. Due to the frequent sensitization to parvalbumins, the role of other allergens is masked. Allergy to fish gelatin has been reported. Additional muscle allergens have been incompletely described, but their exact role remains to be defined. With respect to shellfish allergy, muscle tropomyosin is the major allergen. Tropomyosins give rise to important cross-sensitization between shellfish, but also with gastropods, mites, cockroaches and other arthropods. The myosin light chain has been shown to be an allergen in 60% of white shrimp-allergic patients. A muscle arginine kinase has been recognized as an allergen in a third of patients sensitized to black tiger shrimp. A sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein of the same tiger shrimp is recognized by IgE antibodies of 60% of shrimp-allergic patients.
- Arginine kinase
- Myosin light chain