Aktuelle Marker für die Diagnostik von Überlastungszuständen in der Trainingspraxis

Translated title of the contribution: Current markers for the diagnosis of overtraining syndrome in the practice of training

A. Urhausen*, W. Kindermann

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


The diagnosis of an overtraining syndrome or staleness (OTS) is based on the demonstration of decreased sports-specific performance with more or less pronounced mood disturbances after the exclusion of an organic disease. In ergometric studies overtrained endurance athletes show an impaired anaerobic lactacid performance and a reduced time-to-exhaustion in high-intensive endurance exercises while the submaximal lactate-performance relation and the resulting anaerobic threshold as well as the anaerobic alactacid performance remain mainly unchanged. Several studies report a decrease maximum heart rate, which, however, is only of minor importance. A reduced respiratory ratio at rest and during exercise could be useful for the diagnosis of an OTS, but still requires further confirmation. Systematic assessment of the current mood state by means of standardized questionnaries (Profile of Mood State or "Eigenzustandskala" according to Nitsch) has been described to represent a sensitive diagnostic tool; however, in the practise of daily monitoring of training it is prone to manipulations. Regular measurements of selected substrates and enzymes (urea, uric acid, ammonia, creatine kinase activity) in the blood under standardized conditions primarily serves to reveal circumstances which impair the acute training tolerance without, however, being useful in the diagnosis of an OTS. The impaired maximum exercise-induced and releasing-hormonestimulated rise of pituitary hormones and free plasma catecholamines is currently not suitable for daily application due to methodological limitations. The ratio between anabolic and catabolic hormones, such as (free) testosterone and cortisol, seems to indicate the physiological strain of training, in sense of a "hormonal monitoring of training", however, in most cases it does not diagnose an OTS. Concerning the changes of immunological parameters reduced plasma levels of glutamine are described but their specificity is still discussed. In accordance with the complex pathophysiological mechanisms and the different forms of an OTS, the diagnosis by means of a single parameter is problematical.

Translated title of the contributionCurrent markers for the diagnosis of overtraining syndrome in the practice of training
Original languageGerman
Pages (from-to)226-233
Number of pages8
JournalDeutsche Zeitschrift fur Sportmedizin
Issue number7-8
Publication statusPublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes


  • Enzymes
  • Ergometry
  • Hormones
  • Immunology
  • Mood state
  • Substrates
  • Training


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