Alterations in the gut microbiome, including diet-driven changes, are linked to the rising prevalence of food allergy, yet little is known about how specific gut bacteria incite breakdown of oral tolerance. Here, we show that depriving specific-pathogen-free mice of dietary fiber leads to an increase of the mucolytic bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila, which is associated with a surge in the colonic type 2 immune cells and IgE-coated commensals, and microbiota-mediated gut mucosal barrier dysfunction. These changes manifest into exacerbated sensitization to food allergens, ovalbumin and peanut. To demonstrate the causal role of A. muciniphila, we employed a tractable synthetic human gut microbiota in gnotobiotic mice. The presence of A. muciniphila within the microbiota, combined with fiber deprivation, resulted in stronger anti-commensal IgE coating and type 2 immune responses, which worsened symptoms of food allergy. Our study supports a mechanistic link between diet and a mucolytic gut microbe in regulating food allergy.
|Publication status||Published - 13 Jul 2022|