A brief note regarding randomization

Stephen Senn*

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalLetterpeer-review

    2 Citations (Scopus)


    This note argues, contrary to claims in this journal, that the possible existence of indefinitely many causal factors does not invalidate randomization. The effect of such factors has to be bounded by outcome, and since inference is based on a ratio of between-treatment-group to within-treatment-group variation, randomization remains valid.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)452-453
    Number of pages2
    JournalPerspectives in Biology and Medicine
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 2013


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